Flat Cups (or how I learned to stop plastic waste and love the environment)

Introduction
Public summary: 

Flatten a cup then stretch a cup and flatten it and stretch and flat. Look how plastic is recycled, what it's made of, and how we make things.

Flatten a cup, stretch a cup.
Useful information
Kit List: 

Polystyrene Cups (the thin ones without air in like for soft drinks work best)
Heat Gun
Pliers/test tube grippers
Wooden mould
Rubber bands
Play doh, moulds and extrusion syringes

Packing Away: 

This lives in the box "Periodic Table, Alloys and Carbon Allotropes" as it uses the heat gun, pliers from Alloys and everything else is small.

Explanation
Explanation: 

What is this made out of? *hold out cup*
Plastic, it's actually polystyrene.
Plastic is a polymer, that means long chains built up from individual monomers. Let the children each be a monomer, if they hold hands (with him ugh!) then they're a long polymer. Polystyrene monomers are phenylethene, this is two carbons with a double bond and a phenyl group (Benzene ring - a hydrogen).

Can they name any other plastics? See bottom for list and plastic facts.

Compare to the other insulated cup with air in it. What do they think this is made out of? Not only is it still plastic, it's also polystyrene! They both use similar amounts of plastic, of the same type, one has extra air. They're used differently. Lots of things are made out of polystyrene, we make several million tons of this one.
Looking at our cup. How do we think it was made?

There's lots of ways to make things from plastic:

- Injection moulding - fill a mould with the hot plastic, let it set then unscrew mould. You can see mould lines so this wasn't how this cup was made. I am in the process of 3d printing a mould that you can force playdoh into to form a shape, it may need oiling or clinfilming to work properly.

- Extrusion moulding - the hot plastic is forced through a mould to form constant shapes like pipes. This wasn't how this cup was made as it changes shape. There are several extrusion syringes for playdoh in the box.

- Blow moulding - blow out the shape using air pressure, good for bottles. This is hard to do with playdoh. It may be possible with heat gun on high blow setting or heat gun hair dryer combo.

- 3D printing - built up slice by slice. Lots of the bits I'm making are 3D printed and you can do this with play doh too. Roll a piece of play doh to be really thin, then cut out lots of layers and stack them.

These cups were made by stretching hot plastic disks over a mould and cooling them.

We can demonstrate this. Hot plastic is a bit like a rubber band, so we can stretch it. When it cools it's still stretched out but keeps its shape. Take the cup in the pliers and point the heat gun at it. Heat it evenly and stop before the edges start to curl up. When it gets hot it's going to return to its original shape, a small disk. When it cools it'll stay in this disk shape. You can then heat it up again and stretch it over a mould, keep it held while it cools and it will hold its shape.

This is all because of the polymer form of plastics, the long chains can be stretched out.

Explain what a polymer is - maybe draw a monomer unit or find some string/something else that looks like a polymer chain. For older kids, can go into details of how monomers polymerise (stick to addition, as probably easier to explain than condensation) where the double bond opens out to form two single bonds to monomer units either side. Younger kids may not know what a molecule is - try not to confuse them with too much detail, and maybe just explain using your hand drawn/string model that the plastic is made up of long chains.

The chains want to curl up and tangle because this is entropically better (thermodynamically favourable) than the ordered stretched chains. You might want to say that the chains are "happier" when they're curled up to younger kids, but older ones might be more interested in the entropy-enthalpy stuff (minimising free energy, G = H - TS). For polymers, enthalpy term (H) is generally negligible and G depends on entropy mainly. Possibly discuss the idea that tangled chains are in a lower energy configuration. The contraction as a result of entropic driving force means the polymer acts as an entropy spring. Notice that the disk should actually be an oval, not perfectly circular because the sheet plastic that was stretched over the mould initially was made by rolling out the polymer, so you'll get contraction of the chains in the direction of rolling (I think). This should also work with other stuff, like yogurt pots or something more exciting...

------Rubber Extension-----------
You can take this further by stretching out the rubber and then cooling it using liquid nitrogen, this is the same as plastic but at a shifted down temperature and you get the same effects! The rubber can be stretched into a hard cup shape, although it will be very cold! This happens because the behaviour of the polymer changes when cooled below the glass transition temperature - this is usually pretty low for polymers (well below room temperature), so rubber gets less rubbery as you cool it down because its polymer chains can't move as freely.

---Types of Plastic ------
By recycling code:

1 - PET and PETE - polyethylene terephthalate - Soft-drink bottles, containers for food and other consumer products, water bottles, peanut butter jars
2 - HDPE- high density polyethylene - Milk and juice bottles, dishwashing and laundry detergent, grocery bags
3 - PVC - polyvinyl chloride - Bottles, food trays, rigid sheets used for packaging, electrical insulation, irrigation pipes
4 - LDPE - low-density polyethylene - Squeeze bottles, wire insulation, grocery bags, trash bags, food storage bags
5 - PP - polypropylene - Fruit and vegetable packages, bottle caps, drinking straws (telltale sign: cloudy appearance)
6 - PS - polystyrene - Packaging, CD covers, Styrofoam, egg cartons, packing “peanuts,” plastic tableware, carryout containers
7 - A combination of plastics, or none of the above - Items already made from recycled goods, semi-rigid food storage, drinking cups

Other plastics are PVA (yes the glue!), plyurathane (foamy cushions), Epoxy, Silicone (a non carbon plastic), polyester, ABS, Teflon.

facts
- manifacture 320 mil tonnes per year (2015 stat)
- most common are polyolefins - polypropylene and polyethylene
- pololefins are popular as they float, resistant to water, air, grease and cleaning solvents, come from cheap natural gas, and are robust enough to survive in the sun while still being easy to mould.
- polyolfins are bad as they degrade very slowly, meaning they last centuries in the natural enviroment. They also get abraded by waves into micro-particles which end up in animals and eventually us!
- polyolfins are also hard to recycle as they're often contaminated and can be damaged by Oxygen and heat during reprocessing.
- about 4% of our petroleum and natural gas production goes towards making plastics.
-http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/7/e1700782
-about 40% of plastic use is on packaging!
- from the 1940s (development of plastics) to 2015, 8300 Mil tonnes new plastics made, 2000 Mil still in use and the rest is waste, 9% of this was recycled, 12% incinerated and the rest is either in landfill or in the sea :(

Risk Assessment
Date risk assesment last checked: 
Thu, 26/12/2019
Risk assesment checked by: 
Tdwebster
Date risk assesment double checked: 
Fri, 17/01/2020
Risk assesment double-checked by: 
Polly Hooton
Risk Assessment: 
Hazard Risk Affected Persons Likelihood Severity Overall Mitigation Likelihood Severity Overall
Heat gun Fire risk and also the possibility of burns All 3 3 9 Demonstrator to control heat gun. Do not leave on. Keep flammable material away from the heat gun. Use stand instead of lying heat gun on a surface. Do not touch the heat gun.
In case of burns, run affected area under cold tap for 10 minutes. Call a first aider. Follow venue RA protocols in case of fire.
2 3 6
Liquid nitrogen cooled stuff Tissue damage as a result of touching cooled objects. 3 4 12 Don’t allow people to touch very cold objects. Demonstrator to wear gloves where appropriate.
Call a first aider in the event of an accident.
In the event that they touch anything, call a first aider.
2 3 6
Eating Playdoh Children may eat the play doh 5 1 5 Demonstrator to watch children while using play doh. If eaten tell parents they've eaten play doh and may have an upset stomach or not be hungry at dinner time. 3 1 3
Sharp edges on moulds/3d prints Prints may have sharp edges or fractures causing them to be unsafe. 2 2 4 Check models before use and replace if there are signs of wear. 1 2 2
This experiment contains mains electrical parts, see separate risk assessment.
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